Fallouts of Nagorno- Karabakh Conflict

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By: Dr. Yasir Amir Al Mukhtar

Head of Department of Legal Studies / Center for Strategic Studies

Translation: Dr. Tawfeeq Majeed Ahmed



It is a conflict that historians describe as the longest and most complicated problem between Azerbaijan and Armenia about Nagorno- Karabakh region ( which means in Azeri language “the black garden mountains” ) that has no solutions in the horizons. The region distance is about 4400 k.m., it lies in the western part of Azerbaijan and the population is about 150 thousands, the majority are Armenians with a percentage of 95% of the total region population.

Roots of this conflict returns back to the Soviet duration of the twenties of the last century when Joseph Stalin applied the division policy among ethnicities to ignite the enmity fire and to demolish their strengths. The soviet authority intended in 1923 to include the Armenian minority (Karabakh population) inside Azerbaijan borders with administrative borders drawn to make what surrounds Armenia belongs to Azerbaijan against the population desire to be Armenian. On the other hand, the Azerbaijan minority in Nakhchivan region stay separated inside Armenia republic. In addition, The soviet authority granted Nagorno- Karabakh region self-ruling propriety inside Azerbaijan republic which was like a time bomb.

After The Soviet dissolution in 1991 and with declaration of both Armenia and Azerbaijan their independence, the political leaders in Nagorno- Karabakh showed their desire in independency and establishing an independent republic that does not belong neither to Armenia nor to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan objected on the region independency and considered it separation and rebel; whereas Armenia supported the Armenian political leaders and supplied them financially and militarily. As a result, a fierce war broke out between them, when the two sides lost more than 30 thousand persons and about one million persons were homeless.

In 1994, with an American Russian French mediation, the two sides signed Minsk agreement to cease fire, but this agreement did not participate in solving the disaster since there is no peace agreement between the two sides. This situation finally led to renewing the clashes, the last clash was in 2016 before it restarts again in last September when people were killed and others wounded.

The international community is unbiased in this conflict save Turkey. The last supports Azerbaijan financially and militarily for it is prejudiced to Azerbaijanis. This belongs to several reasons. The first reason is that both societies the Turkish and Azerbaijani are considered Arian in Origin. The second was the Turkish geostrategic benefits in Caucasus are from one side, and the historical enmity between Turkey and Armenia from the other side due to Armenian charges to the Ottoman dispute at that time by committing massacre towards the Armenians resulted in killing more than one and a half million Armenians.

These clashes are considered the worse than the previous ones happened in 2016 when experts warned that the worse would take place . united nations and the most powerful world capitals called for pacification between the two sides. In 27 of September 2020 Armenia and Azerbaijan exchanged charges because of bloody clashes happened between the two sides on account of conflict about Nagorno- Karabakh region resulted in killing 23 persons which is an evolution that threatens by bringing Russia and Turkey around to the battle ground. This may lead to breaking out an abroad extent was between the two states which used to involve in a conflict for decades to control over the region. Armenian prime ministers Nikol Pashinyan invited the international community to ensure that ” Turkey will not involve itself in the conflict” between his country and Azerbaijan concerning Nagorno- Karabakh region, in a way of exchanging slashes statements with Ankara.

Pashinyan declared that Turkey conduct may have destructive results on south Caucasus area and the surrounded ones. He also accused Azerbaijan by ” declaring the war ” on his people, whereas Turkey- Azerbaijan allied accused Armenian responsibility of escalating tension and promised to highly support Baku. Azerbaijani ministry of defense announced that the Armenian forces violated cease fire. He added that it started ” an opposite operation to repress Armenian forces activities and to ensure people safety by using tanks heavy missiles, military air force, and drones. Azerbaijan also declared the martial laws and curfew in Baku and other cities, and emphasized its control over Murovdag mountains in Karabakh which is considered a strategic area between Armenia and the separated area.

Political observers said that the world powers have to condense negotiations to stop the conflict progress. Olisia Fartanyan, from the international crisis group stated to France press ” we are about step of great extent war” and added ” one of the main reasons of the current aggravation is the missing of any preemptive international mediation between the two sides since weeks. Therefore, the international community, mainly the permanent members in the security council have to directly interfere to ceasefire between the two countries as a first step; then, gathering the disputed sides for delegation to reach a solution through delimiting borders and finishing the conflict on Nagorno- Karabakh region between the disputed sides to spread peace and stability in the area.